Every day, a tooth’s enamel goes through two processes, demineralization and remineralization, whereby minerals are lost and added. Demineralization occurs when the acids formed by sugars and plaque in the mouth attack the enamel. Minerals such as phosphate, calcium, and fluoride are then re-deposited onto the enamel layer from water and foods consumed throughout the day.
Fluoride prevents tooth decay by making teeth more resistant to acid attacks from sugars and bacteria. It can also reverse early decay and encourage remineralization while disrupting acid production in teeth that have already been corrupted.
Tooth decay is perhaps the most common sign of a fluoride deficiency. Plaque-rich bacteria produces acids using carbohydrates and sugars, which, in turn, damage tooth enamel. Brittle bones, typically caused by bone demineralization, are another symptom. This scenario can result in higher instances of bone fractures and even osteoporosis.